Background: A challenge in gene therapy is the efficient delivery of DNA/siRNA to the diseased cells. The physicochemical characteristics of siRNA, such as high molecular weight, negative charges and hydrophilic nature—prevent passive diffusion across the plasma membrane for most cells. A therapeutically feasible carrier for intra-cellular delivery of gene materials should accomplish a series of tasks such as: condensing nucleic acid, protecting nucleic acid from leaking in vivo, facilitating endosome escape and releasing DNA/siRNA to the target site. To meet these requirements, an efficient gene vector based on polycation synthesis for siRNA delivery both in vitro and in vivo was developed. Results: The polymer was synthesized by 1, 4-butanediol bis (chloroformate) and PEI 800 Da to form PEI-Bu which could condense siRNA at the N/P ratio of 38.35 or above. The size of the nanoparticles was 100–300 nm and zeta potential was in the range of 10–30 mV at different N/P ratios. The nanoparticles can achieve the ability of cellular uptake and the silencing efficiency was about 46.63% in SMMC-7721 cell line which was generated to stably express GL3 luciferase gene. The cytotoxicity of the polyplex nanoparticles was almost negligible on SMMC-7721 cells by MTT assay, indicating that the reduced luciferase expression was the effect of RNAi, not the influence of cytotoxicity of polyplexes. The polyplex nanoparticle formulated by PEI-Bu and siRNA at N/P ratio of 115.05 was injected into the SMMC-7721 tumor bearing mice locally and the expression of luciferase can reduce to 63.17% compared with control group. Conclusions: Results in this study suggested that PEI-Bu polycation might provide a promising solution for siRNA delivery and had the potential in anti-tumor gene therapy.